What Does the Rcep Trade Agreement Mean for Myanmar
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The signatories also agreed to eliminate tariffs on 80 percent of merchandise trade between them within 10 years of the date the agreement enters into force, but Myanmar and the other two countries will be 15 years old, U Than Aung Kyaw said. RCEP is expected to boost Asian regional trade. The Brookings Institution estimates that RCEP will contribute $209 billion annually to global revenue and $500 billion to global trade by 2030. 1 Below is a summary of some of the benefits and limitations of RCEP, particularly in relation to the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). 2 What is the impact of RCEP on trade? The second part of a series of four parts deals with the impact of the agreement on trade. Among the 15 signatories to RCEP, China has the highest number of SPS MEASURES and technical barriers to trade (TBT). World Trade Organization statistics show that China had 119 SPS measures and 104 TBT in 2016. Myanmar has always been one of the countries most affected by China`s non-tariff barriers, which remain major barriers to Myanmar`s exports to Chinese markets. Given that RCEP does not appear to be able to address existing structural challenges for trade with China, the partnership may not bring as many benefits to Myanmar exporters as has been claimed. One of the biggest obstacles to these barriers is the arrogance of non-tariff barriers. This is particularly true for agricultural exports, which account for 20 to 30 per cent of Myanmar`s total export earnings. China is the largest market for Myanmar`s agricultural exports, but since formal trade is subject to sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures, most of Myanmar`s exports on the Chinese side are informal.
As a result, they are subjected to periodic raids; More recently, China has used phytosanitary measures to tighten pineapple imports, which has led to a significant drop in prices in Myanmar. RCEP promises a new rulebook and a new single procedure for access to preferential tariffs in each of the Member States; improving mechanisms to eliminate non-tariff barriers, including customs procedures, quarantine and technical standards; and a common set of rules on intellectual property, commerce and electronic commerce. Could the marginal benefit of RCEP for Myanmar be achieved through trade with non-ASEAN partners? China is Myanmar`s largest trading partner and accounts for more than 30% of all trade. To determine whether Myanmar can derive marginal benefits from RCEP through its trade with China, it is important to examine the many existing barriers to trade between China and Myanmar and whether RCEP addresses them. The reality, however, is that RCEP will bring about positive changes and ultimately lead to an RCEP area that includes more market access, fewer trade barriers, and new export opportunities, even if it is more limited than optimists think. Japan, South Korea and China are slowly working towards a free trade agreement. Will old disagreements ruin a possible agreement? The Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), signed on November 15, will boost foreign investment in lower-wage and lower-skilled ASEAN countries. After eight years of back and forth, Asia`s Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership on Trade (RCEP), the world`s largest regional trade agreement, was signed at an online ceremony on November 15, 2020. The agreement calls into question the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), a rival regional trade pact that includes Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam. RCEP members include the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam and Singapore) as well as Australia, China, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand. The withdrawal of the United States from TPP-12, the conclusion of the CPTPP on the 8th.
March 2018 and the signing of the RCEP agreement in November 2020 mean that the United States is not part of the two major regional free trade agreements in the Asia-Pacific region. U Than Aung Kyaw said Myanmar will have sufficient time under the agreement to prepare for full integration into the agreement, including aligning the framework and its procedures with international standards, as well as improving the capacity of governmental organizations and the private sector at the international level. RCEP members represent nearly a third of the world`s population and account for nearly 30% of the world`s gross domestic product. The new free trade bloc will be more important than the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada and the European Union.  The combined GDP of potential RCEP members exceeded the combined GDP of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) members in 2007. It has been suggested that continued economic growth, particularly in China and Indonesia, could lead to the total GDP of the original RCEP members reaching more than $100 trillion by 2050, about double the size of the projects of the TPP economies.  On January 23, 2017, President Donald Trump signed a memorandum withdrawing the United States from the TPP, a measure aimed at improving RCEP`s chances of success.  RCEP is the first free trade agreement between China, Japan and South Korea, three of Asia`s four largest economies.  At the time of signing, analysts predicted that this would help stimulate the economy amid the COVID-19 pandemic, „bring the economic focus back to Asia,“ and amplify the U.S. economic and political decline.    The signatories agree to abolish customs duties on a maximum of 90% of trade in goods between them within 20 years of the entry into force of the Agreement. However, given that the country is among the least developed in the region, the question arises as to whether Myanmar is ready to join the new compact and what preparations the government has made to implement the new rules demanded by the signatories.
This means that for processes that require careful, labor-intensive involvement, such as . B the finishing of clothing, uniform rules of origin under RCEP will motivate an increase in manufacturing investment in terms of finishing products such as clothing. This will lead to increased interest in investments in countries with cheaper and less skilled workers, such as Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar, and will be of particular interest to manufacturers in Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore and South Korea, where production costs are higher. While RCEP is a much more limited agreement than the CPTPP or TPP-12, it puts pressure on the United States to re-engage in the Asia-Pacific region or risk being displaced by China`s growing regional presence. This is especially true if China implements Chinese President Xi Jinping`s statement at the recent Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit that China would „look kindly“ to joining the CPTPP. 9 Now that China and South Korea are hinting that they also want to join the CPTPP, the United States may need to act quickly to avoid further delays in developing Asian trade rules in the Asia-Pacific region. Despite this optimism and rhetoric of commitment, RCEP for Myanmar is not as ambitious and radical as some claim. Many of the alleged benefits already exist under regional free trade agreements and ASEAN+1. To put things in perspective, more than 70% of trade between ASEAN member states is already duty-free.
ASEAN accounts for a significant share of Myanmar`s total trade, with Thailand and Singapore among the country`s top 10 trading partners. The signing of RCEP does not necessarily have a major impact on trade within ASEAN, as the tariff line is already close to zero. While there are reasons to welcome the signing of RCEP, part of the discussion so far in Myanmar seems to be overly optimistic about the benefits. A week after the signing, Minister of Investment and External Economic Relations U Thaung Tun wrote in state media that it was a „historic agreement“ that „will strengthen our country`s trade and trade relations and give us better access to the dynamic regional markets of Japan and South Korea, while increasing the flow of responsible and high-quality foreign investment.“ State Councilor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi also called RCEP a „milestone,“ saying it „will provide a new driving force that will accelerate trade and investment facilitation within a well-functioning, highly efficient and rules-based multilateral trading system.“ It also reaffirmed Myanmar`s commitment to the full implementation of the agreement. Yet RCEP is a first for its signatories in many ways. .